Handbook of Emergency Management : Programs and Policies Dealing with Major Hazards and Disasters
During the 1980's, many Americans participated directly and indirectly in the drama and tragedy of major catastrophes, from volcanic eruptions to air crashes, closing the decade with the devastating Exxon Valdez oil spill, Hurricane Hugo, and the San Francisco earthquake. The objective of this volume is to examine how we have addressed some of the major hazards and, to the extent possible, assess the effectiveness of these efforts. This volume inventories and evaluates the major programs and policies designed to deal with the most common and destructive natural and man-made disasters, dividing them into four categories: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Disaster-types included in the handbook are earthquakes, volcanoes, hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, fires, droughts, hazardous materials accidents, nuclear facility accidents, structural failures, and transportation accidents. Following the analyses of specific disaster-types, the book considers the utility of all-hazard programs, such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency's Integrated Emergency Management System and documents the status of present emergency management efforts in the United States. A list of emergency management organizations is also included.
Each disaster-type is evaluated in terms of the frequency of occurrence, potential for property loss and human casualties, predictability of events, and the history of such disasters in the United States. In addition to analyzing the disasters themselves, the book outlines the development of emergency management efforts by federal, state, and local governments; the major problems in designing policy to respond to the specific risks and hazards, as well as some of the major policy alternatives. The analyses address questions of issue salience, levels of program funding, and technical problems. Due to the wide variety of responses at the state and local levels, the primary focus is on federal emergency management program. This book will serve students, officials, and academic researchers by providing an overview of the major emergency management program areas. The addition of graphs, tables, and maps will assist nonspecialists in understanding the nature of the disasters and risks being discussed.
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